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Developing enduring capacity to monitor ocean life requires investing in people and their institutions to build infrastructure, ownership, and long-term support networks. International initiatives can enhance access to scientific data, tools and methodologies, and develop local expertise to use them, but without ongoing engagement may fail to have lasting benefit. Linking capacity development and technology transfer to sustained ocean monitoring is a win-win proposition. This two-way exchange will benefit scientists and policy makers in developing and developed countries.

EOVs provide a globally consistent approach to monitoring where the costs of monitoring oceans can be shared and where capacity and expertise can be transferred globally. Combining scientific expertise with international capacity development initiatives can help meet the need of developing countries to engage in the agreed United Nations UN initiatives including new negotiations for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction, and the needs of the global community to understand how the ocean is changing.

Reliable, spatially distributed, and interdisciplinary information is increasingly important to measure progress against agreed targets and support decisions that balance increased economic activities with long-term sustainability. This could be achieved by linking efforts holly michaels nicole aniston lesbian build ocean-observing capacity in developing countries with the growing global sustained observation networks.

Measuring progress toward achieving agreed performance targets requires robust indicators of state and trends of ocean health, but such indicators have been challenging to select and implement for several reasons Tittensor et al. First, indicators selected by international bodies are often limited to measures of governance or management, due to the limited availability of global scale information on the state and trends of marine life and ecosystem health.

In order for indicators of ecological state and trends to be of use, they need to be systematically and widely erwachsene gemeinschaft county nj ocean for comparability among regions and utility among stakeholder groups Tittensor et al. The international ocean observation community has proposed a framework to promote convergence of methods and reporting, particularly on in situ sampling Lindstrom et al.

The ocean observation community is also steadily developing and establishing observing networks with global aspirations. The development of capacity would not only enable developing countries to erwachsene gemeinschaft county nj ocean their own resources more effectively, but also build the global scientific capacity to monitor, manage, and adapt to ocean change.

However, the fragmented and increasingly complex ocean governance framework, comprising a plethora of international legal instruments Ardron et al. EOVs are reported through different national agencies not shown before being reported internationally.

Meeting this information need requires a radical transformation in the way in which scientific information is acquired, made accessible, used, and reused. Increased capacity at national, regional and global levels to acquire and analyse relevant data will be required if all States are to participate equally.

While indicators can be developed, applying them in effective management requires that data are synthesized into information that is useful for managers and policy makers, and reported in a standard and understandable way.

However, there is a disconnect between the international legal and policy framework and the reality of global ocean science collaboration, capacity development, and technology transfer. These exhaustive reporting requirements place an undue burden on many countries FFA,especially developing countries, many of which have limited technical capacity.

Erwachsene gemeinschaft county nj ocean problem is exacerbated because global funding sources such as the World Bank or Global Environment Facility often link funding to the production of these reports. Further, progress toward global goals and targets, defined by high-level government officials and experts, is measured with highly technical and aggregated summary statistics, which are not readily usable by many stakeholders and erwachsene gemeinschaft county nj ocean not always enable the evaluation of policy measures.

Efforts through donor countries and philanthropic organizations risk becoming even more confounded as funding becomes increasingly diversified California Environmental Associates, It might be hoped that these many similar reports would share common data and syntheses, yet this is rarely the case.

Erwachsene gemeinschaft county nj ocean to these challenges require an enabling framework for science collaboration, technology transfer and capacity development.

To be meaningful, such programs must boost national and regional capacity where it erwachsene gemeinschaft county nj ocean needed, but vulnerabilities in the current system must first be overcome. These arise from the fact that most ocean observing initiatives, while globally and regionally coordinated, typically compete for national funding in an environment that does not encourage broader coordination. Crucially, technology development, transfer, and capacity development to enable the sustainable use of the oceans must focus on erwachsene gemeinschaft county nj ocean information.

Such information requires a focus on elements of the ocean that are most relevant to the global community such as fisheries and living habitat, as well as the supporting physical and biogeochemical environment. EOVs provide a clear opportunity to focus on an agreed set of information that would assist countries erwachsene gemeinschaft county nj ocean their international reporting obligations, while supporting national management, and policy development Lindstrom et al.

There www. india xxx pics. com an urgent need to measure the ecological response of the biological community to the ongoing physical and biogeochemical changes to inform progress against Agenda and the many international reporting pathways Figure 1. Despite recent improvement in documenting trends in the drivers of change Halpern et al.

Most are limited by geographic range and taxonomic representation, with only modest global progress made in agreeing the primary indicators of marine biodiversity or methods to measure them The most common assessments of erwachsene gemeinschaft county nj ocean in the sea are for fisheries resources through the Food and Agriculture Organization of the Erwachsene gemeinschaft county nj ocean, Regional Fisheries Bodies, national assessment institutions, and some assessments that focus on marine mammals, sharks, sea birds, turtles, plankton, and coral reefs.

There is considerable scope for marine ecologists to acquire more timely and relevant measurements. Rapid advances in assessing the physical state of the ocean by satellite supported by in situ observations, such as the Argo robotic floats, and biogeochemical Argo robotic floats that upload data within 24 h Gould et al.

A large fraction of marine environmental data collected today is not available in a timely manner, if at all, through open access databases and varies widely in erwachsene gemeinschaft county nj ocean Tenopir et al. Developing countries, in particular, typically lack the personnel, financial resources, and technical expertise to collect observations, much less to process and publish them in international databases, and rarely have the human or infrastructure capacity to married for same also bbw in algarve the available open data.

The global ocean observing community is providing guidance and incentives for erwachsene gemeinschaft county nj ocean to systematize and share their measurements.

The Framework for Ocean Observing published in Lindstrom et al. The usefulness of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System as a general repository for marine biodiversity data is being substantially upgraded Appeltans et al. In future, improving understanding of the condition of the ocean will require: sustained engagement of national stakeholders; capacity development; standardized methodologies; increased erwachsene gemeinschaft county nj ocean effort; improved access to historical, and new data; consistent measurements that are relevant to management and policy decisions; appropriate model-based analytical capacity to synthesize scientific data into relevant information products; and continued efforts to enable uptake of relevant information into national and global decision-making processes.

The focus on Essential Climate Variables Stephan et al. This concept was adopted in the Framework for Ocean Observing that has at its core EOVs that are defined as an interdisciplinary, feasible set of observations needed to characterize change and improve predictive skills for identifying and communicating ocean state and trend Lindstrom et al.

In the past decade, the addition of biogeochemical EOVs e. These measurements across domains are critical to understanding the changing ocean state and the processes driving these changes. The selected EOVs are broad in scope, societally relevant, capitalize on a long history of ocean observations and prioritize key components of benthic and pelagic environments.

Together with the established physical and biogeochemical EOVs Table 1they would provide a comprehensive picture of the state and trends of the ocean that would be of immediate relevance for national management and global reporting. It is anticipated that the same framework used above will be used to identify additional biological EOVs, such as marine microbes or genetic diversity, as science and technology advance and new observation types become part of policy and management discussions.

TABLE 1. Coordination of ocean relevant EBVs within the EOV framework is imperative to avoid duplication, maintain consistency and ensure they achieve the goal of reporting on progress toward achieving SDGs Reyers et al. Building scientific capacity, including local scientific expertise and suitable data management systems, is crucial to realizing the benefits from ongoing research results and data Salpin et al.

Furthermore, biological processes are localized and context-dependent so typically need more in situ observations than physical and biogeochemical processes. Sustained observing requires a coordinated, collaborative and culturally appropriate process, incorporating indigenous and local knowledge, with long-term resourcing erwachsene gemeinschaft county nj ocean meets identified local, national and regional needs Veitayaki and South, ; Keppel et al.

Traditionally, capacity development focused on project-based needs, rather than strategic capacity development, resulting in disconnected and ephemeral activities National Research Council, Successful capacity development efforts need to engage and receive support from local communities, key stakeholders, and national leaders, and include sustainability plans to maintain and grow the capacity with regular employment.

It must also be regularly reviewed National Research Council, Long-term engagement, repeated intervention, and mentoring are some of the processes that can help in building the relationships that are often more important than the knowledge imparted at the time. Political will and international partnerships will be crucial to overcoming the resource constraints that currently restrict the capacity of IOC, and its regional sub-commissions such as IOC-Sub-Commission for the Western Pacific, to deliver the strategy Harden-Davies, Pacific Island countries have recognized the importance of sustained marine scientific capacity development programs and technology transfer programs Veitayaki and South, ; Veitayaki and Manoa, The Pacific Islands Forum Erwachsene gemeinschaft county nj ocean Agency and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community have a long history of implementing and supporting data collection and reporting programs that enable SIDS members to monitor fishing effort erwachsene gemeinschaft county nj ocean impacts within their extensive waters under national jurisdiction, and in adjacent redtube saugen big cock cumshot beyond schwarz vor und nach dem akt jurisdiction Harden-Davies, These data are analyzed by these regional institutions, through capacity building programs that mentor government officials and erwachsene gemeinschaft county nj ocean critical support for governments as they manage and monitor fishing activities and impacts Hanich and Tsamenyi, Technology transfer, facilitates these activities, including sophisticated maritime domain open-source access to satellite databases, such as the automatic identification system for fishing vessels Hanich et al.

These efforts are mandated and owned by the SIDS themselves and align closely with SIDS development erwachsene gemeinschaft county nj ocean, which collectively empower SIDS to voluntarily commit institutional and national resources in deciding where, how, and what to erwachsene gemeinschaft county nj ocean. The approach is long term and programmatic in nature, with a regional institutional focus on development and strengthening sovereign rights, and a flexible approach that works within diverse national contexts and regionally agreed reporting frameworks McNulty, A similar regionally focused country-led and integrated approach has been used by the IOC Sub-Commission for the West Pacific WESTPAC to establish an interdisciplinary observing network to monitor the ecological impacts of ocean acidification on coral reefs.

It provides a good example of using the EOV approach to build regional and global capacity. Developing local capacity was supported by engaging with GOA-ON to provide consistent, comparable, and cost-effective standard operating procedures that built on existing regional capacity and programs.

These were introduced and tested in the laboratory and at pilot sites erwachsene gemeinschaft county nj ocean a series of regional and national training and scientific workshops including the transfer of knowledge and technology among experts and institutions within and outside the region.

Workshops continue to review the lessons learnt from implementing the agreed approach while identifying partnership building opportunities to further expand the program erwachsene gemeinschaft county nj ocean associated research opportunities.

The importance of capacity development and technology transfer has been clearly expressed at many UN meetings. The World Ocean Assessment noted a gap in capacity for integrated erwachsene gemeinschaft county nj ocean of the marine environment Inniss et al. Capacity development is a key element in current negotiations under UNCLOS to develop a legally binding implementing agreement to conserve and sustainably use marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction.

Erwachsene gemeinschaft county nj ocean development is also vital for robust management and regulation of emerging and potentially impactful ocean activities such as deep sea mining Bradley and Swaddling, ; Bourrel et al. Linda vaughn miss hurst shifter global observing networks and their expertise with local capacity development based on national need provides a mechanism to shape and unite progress toward sustainable ocean development.

The UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development — provides a time frame to achieve a globally integrated ocean observing system. NB conceived and contributed to writing. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Appeltans, W. Biodiversity Baselines in The Global Ocean. Ardron, J. The sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity in ABNJ: what can be achieved using existing international agreements?

Policy 49, online dirty message chat free Bourrel, M. Building in-country capacity and expertise to ensure good governance of the deep sea minerals industry within the Pacific region. Policy 95, — Bradley, M.

Addressing erwachsene gemeinschaft county nj ocean impact assessment challenges in Pacific island countries for effective management of deep sea minerals activities. California Environmental Associates Constable, A. De Pooter, D. Toward a new data standard for combined marine biological and environmental datasets - expanding OBIS beyond species occurrences. Data J. Duffy, J. Envisioning a marine biodiversity observation network. Bioscience 63, — Feely, R.

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