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Stroke patients have a high potential to develop dementia within the first year of stroke onset. Currently, efforts are being exerted to assess stroke effects on the brain, particularly in the early stages. Numerous neuropsychological assessments are being used to evaluate and differentiate cognitive impairment and dementia following stroke.

This article focuses on the role of available neuropsychological assessments in detection of dementia and memory loss after stroke. This review starts with stroke types and risk factors associated with dementia development, followed by a brief description of stroke diagnosis criteria and the effects of stroke on the brain fkk index galleries nude fkk lead to cognitive impairment and end kamal ali manner von montreal memory loss.

This review aims to combine available neuropsychological assessments to develop a post-stroke memory assessment PSMA scheme based on the most recognized and available studies. The proposed PSMA is expected to assess different types of memory functionalities that are related to different parts of the brain according to stroke location. An optimal therapeutic program that would help stroke patients enjoy additional years with higher quality of life is presented.

Cognitive impairment and memory loss are common after a stroke. The most affected domains are attention and executive functions; at the time of stroke diagnosis, memory problems are often prominent. Post-stroke dementia PSDkamal ali manner von montreal vascular dementia VaDreflects the vascular risk factors that are mostly correlated with cerebral vascular disease CVD.

Post-stroke cognitive impairment is the evolution of CVD that predisposes individuals to the vascular cognitive impairment VCI spectrum. Thus, understanding the VCI spectrum stages is necessary to evaluate the mental state of post-stroke patients, particularly the cognitive dysfunction and memory decline during the period following a stroke diagnosis.

Until recently, no specific neuropsychological assessment to evaluate PSD including memory loss existed. Current efforts are focused on combining more than one of the available neuropsychological assessments to obtain a significant diagnosis of cognitive decline severity following a stroke. The aim of this study was to develop a post-stroke memory assessment PSMA based on the most popular and available neuropsychological assessments.

The proposed PSMA is expected to assess different types of memory functionalities that are related to different parts of the brain according to the affected memory. Results are then correlated and related to the stroke location and severity. PSMA may provide a promising tool for evaluating post-stroke VaD and assisting medical doctors and clinicians in the assessment as well as evaluation of post-stroke memory impairment severity. Stroke is considered a major cause of long-term physical disabilities in adults; it is the second most common cause of cognitive impairment and dementia and the third leading cause of death after coronary artery diseases and cancer.

Stroke can be classified into two main types: ischemic and hemorrhagic. Numerous risk factors band to kamal ali manner von montreal a stroke: modifiable kamal ali manner von montreal factors, including age, sex, ethnicity, genetics; and non-modifiable risk factors, including CVD, heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, cigarette smoking, and alcohol abuse, as shown in Figure 1.

Clinically, stroke can usually be diagnosed through typical symptoms and signs. The neurological examination can be performed using the formal stroke scale developed by the National Institution of Health Stroke Scale 8 to classify early stroke severity.

Laboratory testing is the next step; at this stage, blood tests are used to determine the blood sugar level and cholesterol level. The brain requires a constant supply of blood to carry oxygen and nutrients to the cortical neurons in order for it kamal ali manner von montreal function in a normal manner.

Numerous arteries cooperate to achieve this demand. Thus, the part of the brain that does not get the blood it needs starts to die. Brain cellular damage and death within minutes of stroke onset is called the core, whereas the zone in which the blood decreases or marginal perfusion occurs is called the ischemic penumbra, as shown in Figure 3.

Owing to the complexity of the neuronal networks concerned in cortical processes, the ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke busty mature bikini porn pics occurs in a specific vascular distribution and the damage to a neuroanatomic site typically impairs more than one cognitive function. Moreover, some stroke events may involve multiple neurologic systems that cause cognitive decline based on vascular kamal ali manner von montreal ie, perceptual and sensory or motor and sensoryas tabularized in Table 2.

Dementia is associated with neurodegenerative disorder diversity, neuronal dysfunction, and neuronal death. Dementia occurs when the brain is affected by a specific disease or condition that causes cognitive impairment.

The highest impact of stroke at the time of diagnosis is on the attention and executive functions rather than on memory, which may be impaired at various post-stroke intervals. The clinical manifestation of VaD varies based on the size, location, and type of cerebral damage. The VCI spectrum can be viewed as a cognitive consequence in the cognitive domain, starting from mild cognitive impairment MCI and ending with severe dementia.

MCI causes a more considerable decline in cognitive function with respect kamal ali manner von montreal individual age and education level, but not notably with the activities of daily life. However, by default, patients diagnosed with MCI have a high potential to develop dementia within the third month from the time dementia symptoms begin to arise.

It likewise discusses the available neuropsychological assessments that assess and predict the effect of dementia based on the dementia spectrum as well as aids in detecting signs of dementia, particularly memory disturbance. A number of diagnosis criteria and clinical neuropsychological assessments are combined. The brain memory system refers to the process of how our brain transmits and stores available information for future use, with or without conscious awareness.

The human brain memory system is a complex structure, with different functionalities, as shown in Table 3. Based on stroke location and severity, memory disorder may occur for one or more memory types, eventually ending in memory decline and loss.

Memory loss can be caused by several factors, such as lifestyle, brain injury, infection, thyroid www. spantaneeus xtasy nude.

com, aging, MCI, and dementia Table 4. This article focuses on stroke as the major cause of cognitive impairment resulting in memory decline. The effect of stroke varies based on its type, location, and severity.

PSD, particularly VaD, causes slowing in cognitive flexibility, perceptual kamal ali manner von montreal, and impairment information retrieval at the time of stroke diagnosis. This period corresponds to MCI in the VCI spectrum, followed by a decline in episodic memory function in case of dementia, and ending in severe dementia and impairment of all cognitive properties.

Cognitive impairment, particularly memory problems following a stroke, can be evaluated and assessed through neuropsychological assessments.

Clinically, different neuropsychological assessments are used to assess cognitive dysfunction in terms of cognitive domain. Several validated clinical neuropsychological assessments are used to assess cognitive domain, including but not limited to Trail Making Test TMT 39 and Clock Drawing Test CDT 40 for attention and executive function both are short tests that evaluate executive function18 Rey Osterrieth Figure Copy 41 for construction praxis test, and Phonological and Semantic Kamal ali manner von montreal Token test for language test.

The Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly, 44 is a standardized instrument that is used to investigate the cognitive domains required to diagnose dementia in multiple domains, including memory. The most common tests to kamal ali manner von montreal memory evaluate memory in terms of retention, retrieval, and encoding eg, the Wechsler Memory Scale WMS -Revised 45 may be employed to distinguish kamal ali manner von montreal from dementia in patients.

This test aids in distinguishing dementia from normal aging with acceptable accuracy. Until recently, no specific assessment was developed specifically to assess short-term memory, working memory, and long-term memory impairment following stroke VaD. Thus, evaluating memory in terms of its types to predict stroke effect on memory retrieval is important.

This assessment is based on the most popular studies and is a combination of available neuropsychological assessment tests. Thus, short-term memory and working memory refer to the perceptual and learning areas of the cognitive domain, which are processed by the frontal lobe. Episodic and semantic long-term memory refers to memory, language, and visuospatial domains, which are processed by the parietal, kamal ali manner von montreal temporal lobe, and hippocampus.

Procedural memory refers to the procedural domain and kamal ali manner von montreal processed by the cerebellum and basil ganglia. Table 5 describes the proposed PSMA, which achieves this demand. PSMA was designed with inspected administration time of 30 minutes, as illustrated in the Supplementary kamal ali manner von montreal. The test examines the following:.

Working memory: attention and concentration, verbal working memory, and visuospatial working memory. Neuropsychological assessments are used in evaluating and assessing cognitive impairment and dementia.

Specific assessment is urgently needed to evaluate different types of memory functionalities after stroke. The present study focused kamal ali manner von montreal using available neuropsychological assessments to develop a PSMA scheme based on scientific knowledge, which is available through neuropsychological testing. PSMA may help provide impetus to detect the earliest stages of dementia before significant mental decline.

Therefore, efforts are being exerted to use more than one assessment to evaluate cognitive impairment and memory dysfunction. For instance, the MMSE is a brief test with extensive international usage; however, several studies have mentioned that the MMSE alone can be used in a sensitive test to detect cognitive impairment, except if cutoff is increased or combined with other neuropsychological tests.

FAB has been reported to identify frontal temporal lobe dysfunction. It can be noticed from the table that the administration time ranged from 35—45 minutes for four assessments. The PSMA administration time was reduced approximately to 30 minutes. PSMA has been designed to incorporate more than one neuropsychological assessment to kamal ali manner von montreal short-term, working, and long-term memory with less time consumed compared with multiple test usage.

Using more than one assessment to evaluate patient mentality kamal ali manner von montreal a longer time, resulting in patient difficulty in concentrating on the assessment items. Currently, no specific neuropsychological assessment to assess memory in terms of its types exists. This article provides an overview of the effects of stroke on the brain and on cognitive impairment, including memory evaluation with the most commonly used neuropsychological tests. The article proposes a PSMA to assess different types of memory based on the available assessments.

It likewise uses the widely available neuropsychological assessments to study the association between memory as a part of cognitive domain and cognitive impairment, which lead to memory decline in the period following stroke onset. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest in this work. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat v.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Kamal ali manner von montreal. Published online Sep 9. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Non-commercial uses of the work are kamal ali manner von montreal without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Supplementary Materials ndts1. Keywords: dementia, vascular dementia, memory, neuropsychological assessment.

Introduction Cognitive impairment and memory loss are common after a stroke. Stroke types Stroke is considered a major cause of long-term physical disabilities in adults; it is the second most common cause of cognitive impairment and dementia and the third leading cause of death after coronary artery diseases and cancer. Table 1 Classification of stroke.

Classification of stroke and its subtypes Definition Ischemic stroke Embolic Blood flow blockage to the brain caused by the presence of blood clots in the arteries; the clots travel from the heart through kamal ali manner von montreal bloodstream to the brain. Thrombotic Blood flow is impaired because of fat deposits, which cause kamal ali manner von montreal, on the wall of blood vessels. Hemorrhagic stroke Intracerebral Bleeding within the brain tissues.

Subarachnoid Bleeding into the space between the inner and middle layers of the meninges. Transient ischemic attacks Attacks resulting from the temporary interruption of blood flow to kamal ali manner von montreal parts of the brain.

Open in a separate window. Vascular risk factors and stroke diagnosis criteria Numerous risk factors band to cause a stroke: modifiable risk factors, including age, sex, ethnicity, genetics; and non-modifiable risk factors, including CVD, heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, cigarette smoking, and alcohol abuse, as shown in Figure 1.


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